STUDY OF FUEL AND EQUIVALENT ECONOMY OF TRANSPORT VEHICLES, OPERATING ON CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE TYPES OF FUEL
Keywords:electric vehicles, fuel efficiency, hybrid transport vehicles, equivalent consumption of fuel, electric power
Development of the automobile industry leads to annual increase of the quantity of the automobiles. In 2020 more than 78 mil. motor vehicles were manufactured in the world, lion share of the quantity falls on such manufactures as Toyota Motor Corporation (9.5 mil) and Volkswagen Group (8.7 mil). It is obvious that such amount of the world auto pool will cause numerous problems, first of all, it is the pollution of the environment by the exhaust gases and traffic jams. In particular, over 20% of all carbon dioxide (СО2) emissions is generated by motor vehicles.
The paper contains the list of the basic alternative sources of fuel, used in transport vehicles, such as ethanol, butanol, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, biogas, also the sources of electric energy for transport vehicles are: power lithium-ion batteries, fuel and hydrogen cells, solar cells and supercapacitors.
Technique for determination of the fuel and equivalent efficiency, used in the USA and problems dealing with its implementation in Ukraine is considered. It was established that the Ukrainian legislation does not contain statutory-instruments, regulating the technique for determination of fuel efficiency of the transport vehicles, including the vehicles which use the alternative sources of energy. Equivalent fuel efficiency of the following motor vehicles was studied and analyzed: Chevrolet Lacetti (petrol), Renault Logan (diesel), Honda FCX Clarity (hydrogen), Ford C-Max (alcohol-containing fuel), Renault Sandero (biodiesel fuel), Nissan Qashqai (biogas), Citroёn C4 (liquefied natural gas), Nissan Leaf (electric energy). Results are presented in the form of graphic dependences.