Scientific Works of Vinnytsia National Technical University <p>Scientific Works of Vinnytsia National Technical University (ISSN&nbsp;2307-5392) is online quarterly&nbsp;peer-reviewed&nbsp;scientific journal on technical sciences.&nbsp;It is English version of the journal&nbsp;<strong>Praci Vinnytskogo Natsionalnogo Technichnogo Universitetu</strong>&nbsp;(ISSN&nbsp;2307-5376).</p> en-US (Petro D. Lezhniuk) (Volodymyr Vasyl'ovich Netrebskyy) Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 PROGRAMMING DETERMINATION OF THE STATE OF THE ELECTRIC THERMAL DEVICE FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURAL COMPOSITE MATERIALS <p>Software-hardware complexes, intended for the synthesis of micro- and nanostructural composite materials as far as the control of energy release of electric thermal devices is concerned, refer to the control engineering and temperature regulation, applying electric means. The importance of the provision of rapid&nbsp; and &nbsp;efficient&nbsp; support of the computer-based diagnostics of the state and control of the energy release of the electric thermal devices of the software-hardware complexes in various energy conditions leads to the necessity of the determination of the set &nbsp;of the parameters which would comprehensively characterize instantaneous state of the electric thermal device at random moment of time as well as the set &nbsp;of the information factors, measured by means of the computer for fluctuating &nbsp;calculation of the parameters, determined on their base. The ratio of the instantaneous value of the thermally-dependent resistance of the electric heater to the internal resistance of the supply source is considered to be the determining parameter, regarding the formation of the range of the attainable values of the energy release and, as a result, the range of the attainable temperatures. To characterize the state of electric heater&nbsp; it is suggested to use the set &nbsp;of the instantaneous values of its relative values of &nbsp;thermal power and resistance. The set &nbsp;of the instantaneous values of these two parameters – electric voltages on the thermally- dependent resistance of the electric heater and on its serial connection with thermally-stabilized (reference) resistance is allocated as computer-registrated information factors for further computer-based determination of the electric heater state. The method of computer-based determination of the electric heater state &nbsp;&nbsp;exclusively on the base of the computer-based control &nbsp;of the supply source EMF and registration at &nbsp;the successive moments of time of simultaneously measured voltages on the thermally-dependent resistance of the electric heater and on its serial connection with thermostabilized resistance is suggested.</p> Olexsander Denysenko; Sergiy Meschaninov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 THE TECTOLOGY OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND THE PHENOMENON OF HYPERVALENCE INTERACTION IN THE STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED ELECTRIC CIRCUIT <p>The paper presents a number of the solutions of the important and interrelated theoretical problems, having technology-specific and general natural significance. Taken together and in the interaction with one another, they lay the &nbsp;theoretical basis for the formation and development of the new trend in classical electrical engineering, characteristic feature of this trend is the construction of the generalized, regarding the number of the degrees of freedom, continuous in time, homogeneous or mixed by their nature dynamic systems, &nbsp;as &nbsp;of purely electrical and combined physical origin,&nbsp; their structural analysis and formalization on the deductive basis of &nbsp;the process of mathematical and physical identification.</p> <p>In the connection of the above-mentioned the author determined and revealed the essence of the unknown general natural phenomenon of the hyperforce (hypervalence) interaction between the elementary structural links which is observed or can be observed in the dynamic systems with the concentrated parameters of the random physical nature and complexity in the process of their motion in the phase space under the impact of the internal and external forces. It is shown and mathematically proved that in general case the internal force interaction between the structural elements of the dynamic system is at the same time multidimensional and corresponds to the dimensionalities of the subspaces of the system topological space, which are determined by all the combinatorial combinations from the number n to the number k, where the number k belongs to the area 2&nbsp;≤&nbsp;k&nbsp;≤&nbsp;n, and n is the number of the degrees freedom of this system. In such embedded &nbsp;subspaces the available multidimensional forces of the random dimensionality are independent one from another. Among others, this simplifies the predominant, for grater part of theories and scientific systems, paradigm concerning the possibility of exceptionally &nbsp;binary (k&nbsp;=&nbsp;2) presentation of the character of the force interaction (and correspondingly mathematical relations) between the structural elements of the dynamic systems during their motion.</p> <p>&nbsp;Accounting &nbsp;the phenomenon of the hyperforce (hypervalence) interaction considerably broadens &nbsp;the classes of the studied dynamic systems.</p> <p>On the example of the electric engineering systems the application of Lagrange-Maxwell equations enabled &nbsp;to solve the number of decomposition problems, which form &nbsp;the basis &nbsp;of one of the fundamental problems of the theoretical electrical engineering – construction of the electric circuit. generalized by the number of the degrees of freedom .</p> <p>The obtained results, namely topological structural diagram of the generalized electrical circuit and structurally determined system of differential equations of its motion (structural equations), today &nbsp;have the highest degree of generalization and deductively embrace wide classes of the electrical circuits and systems – both already known and possible ones.</p> Yuriy Vedmitskiy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 STUDY OF VARIABLE OPERATION MODES ENERGY ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS WITH COGENERATION HEAT PUMP INSTALLATIONS, USING THE HEAT OF THE INDUSTRIAL AND NATURAL SOURCES <p>The results of the research of energy economic efficiency of variable operation modes of energy supply systems (ESS) with peak sources of heat (PSH) and cogeneration heat pump installations (CHPI), using the heat of the industrial and natural sources are presented in the given research, they enable to provide the substantiated determination of energy efficient and economically efficient operation modes of ESS with CHPI and PSH with the combined seasonal usage of low-temperature heat of industrial and natural sources. We suggest the results of the research on the example of ESS with CHPI and PSH for thermal scheme of the health resort boiler house. In our study the application of energy efficient and economically expedient variant of energy supply system with CHPI, based on steam-compressor heat pumps and gas-piston engines-generators (GPE) was suggested in order to improve the operating indices of the thermal scheme of the health resort boiler house. In the study the combined seasonal usage of the boiler house waste flue gases heat in CHPI was foreseen with the usage of utilization equipment as well as the natural heat of the surface waters. It is determined that under the conditions of variable operation modes of ESS with CHPI and combined seasonal usage of the heat of the industrial and natural sources in CHPI, the most efficient by energy, economic and technical indices is the variant of ESS with CHPI application in the thermal scheme of the health resort boiler house with the utilization of 50% of the thermal power of the boiler house waste f gases in utilization equipment and CHPI. If this variant of ESS with CHPI and PSH is used, then energy efficient and economically substantiated operation modes of ESS with combined seasonal usage of low-temperature heat of the industrial and natural sources will be provided. The approach, suggested in the given paper, concerning &nbsp;the study of energy economic efficiency of variable operation modes of ESS with PSH and CHPI, using low-temperature heat of the industrial and natural sources, enabled to provide the substantiated definition of energy efficient and economically efficient operation modes of ESS with CHPI and PSH with the combined seasonal usage of low-temperature heat of the industrial and natural sources.</p> Olga Ostapenko; Victor Portnov, Pavlo Forsiuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 CONSTRUCTION OF GIS-INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF DATA AND MODELS, BASED ON XML FORMALIZATION, FOR SIMULATING PROCESSES, TAKING PLACE IN RIVERS <p>The paper presents the conducted analysis of the known formats for formalization of mathematical models and spatial formats which are relevant for processing data and models occurring in rivers, namely, PMML, MathML, SBML, GML, WaterML, according to the system of the following criteria:availability of repositories of the already identified models, integration with programming &nbsp;languages, availability of specific tags for working with spatial data, availability of environments for automated &nbsp;formalization and import/export of XML models. An integral criterion is proposed. Examples of using this criteria system for selection of the optimal XML format for storing data and models are presented for different&nbsp; weights of&nbsp; certain criteria and conditions: if availability of geo-reference is the main criterion, Water ML will the optimal XML language, if it is the possibility to formalize any analytical models, especially hydro-biological ones, then SBML will be the optimal choice and if automation of artificial intelligence algorithms is required, then PMML should be chosen.</p> <p>The following known technologies for storing attributive and spatial data of GIS for their automated processing are characterized: KML, <a href="">Shapefile</a>, <a href="">GPX</a>, <a href="">GeoJSON</a>, <a href="">SXF</a>, ArcGIS geo-data base, <a href="">Spatialite</a> (SQLite), MapInfo TAB format. It is noted that by the criterion of the number of references with the word “map” found&nbsp; by Google search system&nbsp; such formats as KML (22 million), <a href="">GPX</a> (20 million) and <a href="">Shapefile</a> (11,5 million) are the most popular in the world.</p> <p>GIS integrated system of data and models based on XML formalization is proposed for the first time and its operability is illustrated by the example of predicting average annual water consumption over a multiyear period for 50 % provision in the Dniester river basin in KNIME Analytics Platform environment.</p> <p>The obtained results make it possible to provide fast construction, versatility and broad functional of GIS-integrated system of data and models.</p> Vitalii Mokin; Liubov Skoryna, Yevhenii Kryzhanovskyi, Mykola Horash ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 IMPACT OF THE FURRING ON FUEL CONSUMPTION OF STEAM-GENERATING INSTALLATIONS OF THE OIL GAS TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSPORT <p>The paper considers the problem of the impact of the furring &nbsp;on the heating elements of mobile steam generating installation (SGI), widely used in oil and gas industry for the dewaxing of wells, pipe-lines, oil and gas as well as other equipment by the saturated steam of high and low pressure, and for other domestic and industrial needs.</p> <p>As steam-generating installations operate in field conditions at large distance from the main bases of their location (storage and registration), this &nbsp;&nbsp;leads to the forced consumption of physically and chemically untreated raw water. As a rule, this is subsurface natural water, water from rivers, lakes, pond, etc. Operation of steam-generating installations on the untreated water results in formation of the scale , which causes excess fuel consumption and failure of the steam generator boiler as a result of the coil burnout. However, even in the course of operation on the treated feed water the scale &nbsp;&nbsp;is formed on the walls of the coil, it decreases the operation efficiency and requires periodic descaling by means of acid treatment after 48 – 72 hours of operation.</p> <p>Operators &nbsp;often create the conditions for the creation of the thick layers of the scale &nbsp;and excess fuel consumption for the obtaining of the needed amount of steam, as compared with the data, specified by the regulatory documents&nbsp; on &nbsp;the installations operation.</p> <p>The paper contains the analysis of the impact of the scale &nbsp;&nbsp;layer thickness on thermal losses of the steam-generating installation boiler and the impact of the fur layer on the excess fuel consumption of the mobile steam-generating installation. Mathematical dependence of the excess fuel consumption on scale layer thickness is obtained. It was shown that the emergence of the scale &nbsp;&nbsp;causes not only economic but also ecological problems.</p> <p>In order to eliminate the negative impact of the scale on steam-generating installation operation the construction of the cleaning element was suggested.</p> <p>Application of the suggested device will enable to save up to 10.5 % of the fuel (approximately 121.5 kg/hr.). Taking into account the retail cost of the diesel fuel 27 UAH./l it is possible to achieve savings of 3280.5 UAH/ hour of the operation of one steam-generating installation.</p> <p>Thus, problem, considered in the paper is rather important for the enterprises of oil and gas industry.</p> Fedir Kozak, Ivan Bogatchuk; Igor Prunko; Mykhailo Bogatchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 STUDYING MAIN TECHNICAL-OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ITERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES <p>Today alternative fuels for engines, based on alcohols, oils and animal fats, are becoming widespread in Ukraine and all over the world. Therefore, intensive work is carried out on switching internal combustion engines to biofuel both in the countries with limited energy resources and in highly developed countries that have the possibility of purchasing liquid fuels.</p> <p>The paper analyzes main alternative fuels for diesel internal combustion engines (ICE), gives their characteristics, investigates and evaluates main physical and chemical indicators of the most widespread biodiesel fuels and describes the conditions necessary for their application in ICE.</p> <p>On the results of studying the cetane number such fuel types as RME B100 and SME B10 are recommended for use in high-speed diesel engines. It should be noted, however, that for SME B10 the cetane number is 49.4 and is very close to the standard value. Therefore, its application as a fuel will not have negative consequences for engines. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>According to the research results on lower combustion heat value, biodiesel fuel SME B20 corresponds to the State Standard and, therefore, by this indicator it is recommended for use in diesel engines.</p> <p>Densities of biodiesel fuels SME B20 and SME B40 correspond to the State Standard of Ukraine and so they are also recommended to be used in diesel engines.&nbsp;</p> <p>Biodiesel fuels SME B20 and SME B40 correspond to the kinematic viscosity Standard as well.</p> <p>According to the sulfur content, biodiesel fuels RME B100, SME B100, SME B20 and SME B40 correspond to the quality indicator of diesel fuels of the type II for high-speed diesels (ДСТУ 4840:2007). &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Thus, the properties of the investigated biodiesel fuels RME B100, SME B100, SME B20 and SME B40, based on rapeseed and soybeans oils, correspond or are very close to the State Standards of Ukraine. At the same time, SME B20 and SME B40 are the ones that are the &nbsp;closest &nbsp;to the commercial diesel fuels and, therefore, their application in high-speed diesel engines does not require any changes in the supply system and will ensure stable operation and high performance indicators of the engine.</p> Vasyl Melnyk; Tetiana Voytsehivska, Anna Sumer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 THE PROBLEM OF FLOODING OF NEDIELNE GAZ-CONDENSATE FIELD AND THE WAYS TO SOLVE IT <p><em>In the process of Nedielnegas-condensate field development flooding of the productive horizon M-4 is observed, which negatively effects reaching the maximum hydrocarbonex traction factor. Experts of Yuliyevskeoil, gas and condensate workshop conducted exploration study of well 3. On the results of this study such mode of the well operation was chosen, which provides periodical gas take-off. During subsequent operation the well stopped. In order to restore its operation, development of the well was carried out and then it was operated again. Due to the growth of the water factor, well operation did not last long.</em></p> <p><em>To solve this well flooding problem, works on selective water-isolation were carried out according to the technology developed by Ukrainian Research Institute for Natural Gases. Its essence lies in the formation of impermeable layer of blocking material in reservoir conditions, which provides isolation of the stratum water inflow. The institute experts elaborated the plan according to which the work was conducted in several stages, in particular, supplying foam into the internal cavity of the lift tubes for washing out the sand, pumping blocking solution, pumping chemical reactants and study of the well. On the results of the conducted water-isolation works reduction of the stratum water content in the well was achieved. Individual measurements of the well operation parameters were conducted. Thus, the conducted water-isolation works made it possible to restore the well operation. Technological mode of the well operation that was limited due to the installation of a washer at the wellhead was proposed. In order to prevent premature flooding of the water horizons, an important measure is selection and adherence to the optimal technological mode of the well operation. In the conditions of the water factor growth it is necessary to conduct geophysical studies in order to detect the source of water inflow to the well.</em></p> Volodymir Volovetskiy; Viacheslav Otrishko, Oksana Shchyrba, Andriy Vytiaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 MULTISPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE PIGMENTAL PARAMETERS OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN AQUEOUS MEDIA <p>The increase of the indirect measurement accuracy of phytoplankton pigment parameters in natural aquatic habitats is necessary for the solution of the problems of ecological monitoring of water objects, their ecotoxicological control as well as multiparametric control of water quality. Applying the technique of the mathematical modeling of light scattering in small angle approximation in multilayer nonuniform media, the direct problem of determination the spectral characteristics of natural aquatic habitats on changes of the pigment parameters of phytoplankton is solved. In the given research, the process of the in direct measurement of the phytoplankton pigment parameters in aquatic habitats by means of multispectral method is studied, the regression equations are obtained, enabling to determine the relation between the chlorophyll <strong>a </strong>and general chlorophyll, as well as the relation between the carotinoids and general chlorophyll.&nbsp; For this purpose, the procedure of multiregression with step-by-step inclusion of the independent variables is used. The analysis of the methodical and instrumental errors of the phytoplankton pigment parameters measurements in aquatic habitats is performed, using in multispectral device of ecological measuring control light emitting diodes, laser diodes and monochromator as the radiation source. Optimal variants of the realization of the means of multispectral ecological control of pigment parameters of the phytoplankton in the aquatic habitats is chosen, depending on the cost of their realization and general measurement error. In the process of measurement the relation between the chlorophyll <strong>a </strong>and general chlorophyll of the phytoplankton in the aquatic habitat, the least general error of 0.381% was obtained for the 6-channel device of multispectral measuring control with the width of spectral range in each channel of 20 nm. In the process of measurement the relation between carotinoids and general chlorophyll of the phytoplankton in the aquatic habitat 5 channel device with the width of spectral range in each channel 20 nm was chosen to be an optimal variant of the device for multispectral ecological control, it enables to obtain general measurement error of &nbsp;not more than 0.486%.</p> Sergiy Kvaternyuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 STUDY OF THE EFFICIENCY OF FERRUM IONS REMOVAL BY AQUATIC HIGHER PLANTS <p>During aerobic biological treatment of paper mill waste water, the complete treatment of sewage from ferrum ions to the indices of MPC is not provided. Traditional physical-and-chemical treatment technologies are connected with the usage of high-cost, nonrenewable sorbents, which, after treatment, form precipitation which is difficult or impossible to process. Promising alternative is the usage of aquatic higher plants, in particular, Lemna minor (duckweed). In modern research, studying the processes of ferrum ions removal, high level of their elimination is achieved only in 4 – 5 days and is 80±5. The task of reducing the duration of the treatment process is very urgent.&nbsp;</p> <p>The purpose of this work is to determine &nbsp;the rational parameters of the &nbsp;biological treatment&nbsp; of paper mill wastewater applying the method of &nbsp;active silt (COD, duration of the contact)and study the dynamics of&nbsp; ferrum ions removal in the process of assimilation by Lemna minor (duckweed) (by the duration of the contact and planting density).</p> <p>Studies were carried out on sewage waters, samples of which were selected at the wastewater treatment plant of the paper mill after the primary sedimentation tanks. Active silt from aeration station was used for aerobic treatment of waste water. Physical simulation was carried out on a pilot plant of SBR reactor type. Ferrum removal was carried out using Lemna minor, in the process of the advanced waste water treatment. Studies of ferrum ions removal dynamics were continued, using test solutions prepared from distilled water with the addition of ferric sulfate.</p> <p>The obtained results demonstrate regular increase of ferrum ions removal effect at the increase of planting density. The highest efficiency during the first day of the experiment of 88.5% is obtained if the planting density is approximately 5.8g/dm<sup>2</sup>, where as the lowest efficiency of 49%, if the planting density is approximately 2.9 g/dm<sup>2</sup>. Comparison of the efficiency of sewage and test &nbsp;solutions treatment showed no significant difference, so the presence of pollutants, stipulating the COD index &nbsp;in these conditions does not have a clearly expressed impact on the process of ferrum ions removal. The increase of the planting density significantly influences the intensity of the process, and can be used as the mechanism for reducing the duration of ferrum ions removal from the water.</p> Larysa Sabliy; Sergii Konontsev; Mykola Korenchuk, Dina Koltysheva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300