Scientific Works of Vinnytsia National Technical University 2022-01-02T16:06:58+02:00 Petro D. Lezhniuk Open Journal Systems <p>Scientific Works of Vinnytsia National Technical University (ISSN&nbsp;2307-5392) is online quarterly&nbsp;peer-reviewed&nbsp;scientific journal on technical sciences.&nbsp;It is English version of the journal&nbsp;<strong>Praci Vinnytskogo Natsionalnogo Technichnogo Universitetu</strong>&nbsp;(ISSN&nbsp;2307-5376).</p> MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE TURBOCHARGER ЯМЗ-650.1118011 DIAGNOSTICS 2022-01-02T15:52:53+02:00 Dmytro Borysiuk <p><em>Concept</em> <em>of</em> <em>modern</em> <em>automobile</em> <em>transport</em> <em>development</em> <em>provides</em> <em>the increase of the engine power with the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions of the combustion products</em><em>. </em><em>To</em> <em>achieve</em> <em>the</em> <em>set</em> <em>goals</em> <em>the</em> <em>internal</em> <em>combustion</em> <em>engines</em> <em>are</em> <em>equipped</em> <em>with</em> <em>turbochargers</em><em>, </em><em>boost intercoolers</em><em>, </em><em>electric</em> <em>power</em> <em>storage</em> <em>systems</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>fuel</em> <em>supply</em> <em>and</em> <em>electronic</em> <em>control</em> <em>elements</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>Nowadays</em> <em>in</em> <em>greater</em> <em>part</em> <em>of</em> <em>cases</em> <em>faults</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>boosting</em> <em>systems</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>internal</em> <em>combustion</em> <em>engines</em> <em>are</em> <em>detected by</em> <em>the</em> <em>external</em> <em>features</em><em>. </em><em>It</em> <em>is also</em> <em>possible</em> <em>to</em> <em>improve</em> <em>the</em> <em>quality</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>engines boosting systems</em> <em>diagnostics</em> <em>by</em> <em>means</em> <em>of</em> <em>developing</em> <em>new</em> <em>mathematical</em> <em>models</em> <em>of</em> <em>their</em> <em>functioning</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>Modern methods and means of turbochargers diagnostics as the element of the boosting system of the engines of the motor vehicle transport have been analyzed</em><em>. </em><em>It</em> <em>was</em> <em>determined</em> <em>that</em> <em>the</em> <em>available</em> <em>methods</em> <em>and</em> <em>means</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>turbochargers</em> <em>diagnostics</em> <em>do</em> <em>not</em> <em>allow</em> <em>in</em> <em>full</em> <em>scale to</em> <em>determine</em> <em>their</em> <em>current</em> <em>technical</em> <em>state</em> <em>that</em> <em>requires</em> <em>the</em> <em>development</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>mathematical</em> <em>models</em> <em>of</em> <em>their</em> <em>units</em> <em>and</em> <em>elements</em> <em>as</em> <em>the</em> <em>object of the diagnostics</em><em>.</em><em>&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>Turbocharger</em> <em>ЯМЗ-650.1118011, </em><em>which</em> <em>is</em> <em>the</em> <em>part</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>boosting</em> <em>system</em> <em>of diesel engines </em><em>ЯМЗ-650.10, ЯМЗ-6501.10 </em><em>and</em><em> ЯМЗ-6502.10</em><em> are selected as the object of the diagnostics</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>Analysis</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>characteristic features of </em><em>ЯМЗ-650.1118011</em><em> construction as the object of diagnostics</em><em>, </em><em>was performed</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>Replacement of real engineering devices with their idealized models enables to use various mathematical methods</em><em>. </em><em>Mathematical</em> <em>model</em> <em>is</em> <em>suggested</em> <em>in</em> <em>general</em> <em>form</em><em>, </em><em>this</em> <em>model</em> <em>represents</em> <em>the</em> <em>system</em> <em>of</em> <em>functional</em> <em>dependences</em> <em>between</em> <em>each</em> <em>diagnostic</em> <em>signal</em> <em>and</em> <em>structural</em> <em>parameters</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>For turbocharger </em><em>ЯМЗ-650.1118011 </em><em>diagnostic matrix is composed, it comprises the list of failures and features of failures</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>By means of the developed mathematical model it is possible to perform efficient diagnostics of the turbocharger </em><em>ЯМЗ-650.1118011. </em><em>In</em> <em>the</em> <em>process</em> <em>of</em> <em>mathematical</em> <em>model</em> <em>development</em> <em>it</em> <em>was</em> <em>taken</em> <em>into</em> <em>consideration that the inverse transform of the amount of the failure symptoms into the amount of the structural parameters </em><em>(</em><em>failures</em><em>) </em><em>of the object was single-valued</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>Study of the suggested mathematical model of turbocharger ЯМЗ-650.1118011 diagnostics will enable to detect the failures of its units and parts depending on their features, this will increase the term of no-failure operation both of the turbocharger itself and the engine of the motor vehicle.</em></p> 2022-01-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 STUDY OF FUEL AND EQUIVALENT ECONOMY OF TRANSPORT VEHICLES, OPERATING ON CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE TYPES OF FUEL 2022-01-02T16:06:58+02:00 Andryi Gavryliuk <p>Development of the automobile industry leads to annual increase of the quantity of the automobiles. In 2020 more than 78 mil. motor vehicles were manufactured in the world, lion share of the quantity falls on such manufactures as Toyota Motor Corporation (9.5 mil) and Volkswagen Group (8.7 mil). It is obvious that such amount of the world auto pool will cause numerous problems, first of all, it is the pollution of the environment by the exhaust gases and traffic jams. In particular, over 20% of all carbon dioxide (СО<sub>2</sub>) emissions is generated by motor vehicles.</p> <p>The paper contains the list of the basic alternative sources of fuel, used in transport vehicles, such as ethanol, butanol, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, biogas, also the sources of electric energy for transport vehicles are: power lithium-ion batteries, fuel and hydrogen cells, solar cells and supercapacitors.</p> <p>Technique for determination of the fuel and equivalent efficiency, used in the USA and problems dealing with its implementation in Ukraine is considered. It was established that the Ukrainian legislation does not contain statutory-instruments, regulating the technique for determination of fuel efficiency of the transport vehicles, including the vehicles which use the alternative sources of energy. Equivalent fuel efficiency of the following motor vehicles was studied and analyzed: Chevrolet Lacetti (petrol), Renault Logan (diesel), Honda FCX Clarity (hydrogen), Ford C-Max (alcohol-containing fuel), Renault Sandero (biodiesel fuel), Nissan Qashqai (biogas), Citroёn C4 (liquefied natural gas), Nissan Leaf (electric energy). Results are presented in the form of graphic dependences.</p> 2022-01-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 DEPENDENCE OF THE LEVEL OF BIOLOGICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL ON THE DISTANCE TO SOLID MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL 2022-01-02T15:08:04+02:00 Oleg Bereziuk Iryna Klymchuk Tetiana Vasenko Svitlana Gorbatiuk <p>In recent years the total area of solid municipal waste landfills and dump sites, including overloaded ones, which violate the norms of ecological safety and are the objects of the intensive ecological loading, threatening the pollution of the environment with microorganisms (colibacilli bacteria,streptococci, staphylococci and ascarids), causing bacteriological pollution of soils has considerably grown. Determination of the regression dependence of the level of bacteriological pollution of the soils on the distance to solid municipal landfill is an important scientific engineering problem. Aim of the research is to determine the regression dependence of bacteriological pollution level of the soils on the distance to the solid municipal waste landfill. In the process of the research the method of the regressive analysis of the results of single-factor experiments and other paired dependences with the selection of the best type of the function from sixteen most widely-spread variants by the criterion of the maximum value of the correlation factor is used. Regression was performed on the base of the linearized transformations, which enable to reduce the non-linear dependence to linear one. Determination of the regression equations coefficients was carried out, applying the method of the least squares by means of the developed computer program "RegAnaliz", protected by the Certificate of the State Registration of the rights to the copyright object. Adequate &nbsp;regression hyperbolic dependence of&nbsp; bacteriological pollution level &nbsp;of the soil on the distance to the solid municipal waste landfill is obtained, the dependence is used for the determination of the safe distance for SMW landfill location from agricultural soil by the index of biological pollution level. Graphic interpretation of the dependence of biological pollution level of the soil on the distance to the solid municipal waste landfill is constructed, it enables to illustrate the given dependence and show the sufficient coincidence of the theoretical results with actual results on the level of 0.99535.</p> 2022-01-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RATE OF THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES INCREASE IN UKRAINE 2022-01-02T15:27:22+02:00 Oleg Bereziuk Volodymyr Kraevskyi <p>Sorting of the solid municipal waste promotes the extension and reuse of the waste. Sorting and preparation for further recycling, disinfection and disposal of non-toxic solid municipal waste, collected by indiscriminative method, is performed by material recovery facilities. Determination of the regressive dependence, that describes the rate of material recovery facilities increase in Ukraine is urgent scientific-engineering problem. The aim of the study is determination of the regressive dependence, describing the rate of these facilities growth and can be used for the prediction of the quantity of such facilities. In the process of the study the method of regressive analysis of the results of single-factor experiments and other pair dependences with the selection of the rational type of function from the sixteen most widespread variants by the criterion of the maximum value of the correlation coefficient has been used. Regression was carried out on the base of the linearized transforms, which enable to reduce non-linear dependence to linear one. Determination of the beta coefficients was carried out applying the least square method, by means of the elaborated computer program "RegAnaliz", protected by the Certificate of the State Rregistration of the rights to the copyright object. Adequate regression exponential function, describing the rate &nbsp;of the material recovery facilities increase in Ukraine and can be used for the prediction of the number of such facilities has been &nbsp;obtained. Graphic dependence, that describes the rate of the number of material recovery facilities increase in Ukraine and allows to illustrate this dynamics, show sufficient reproducibility of the theoretical results with factual data has been constructed. Using the obtained dependence it is estimated that for the sorting of the annual volume of SMW in Ukraine the necessary quantity of material recovery facilities at the present rate of increase can be provided by 2040.</p> 2022-01-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 APPLICATION OF THE ORGANIC ACIDS SOLUTIONS FOR CLEANING THE MEMBRANE BLOCKS OF BAROMETRIC INSTALLASTIONS 2022-01-02T15:40:17+02:00 Viacheslav Radovenchyk Margaryta Karpenko <p>Paper describes the experimental studies, using the solutions of food acids for the extraction of the iron compounds from the membrane blocks of barometric installations by means of maceration. Ferric iron compounds are typical and at the same time complex pollutants of the membrane blocs. Iron norms exceedance in the water may provoke allergic reactions and organic iron may cause stomach and duodenal ulcer. High concentration of iron in the water creates favorable conditions for the development of iron bacteria, especially in the warm water. Waste products of iron bacteria are canrcinogens.</p> <p>Aim of the given research is searching of the optimal means of the membrane block cleaning from the ferric iron compounds. It is worth taking into account that this method must be ecologically safe and economically expedient that enables to use it in practice, increasing the service life of the membrane block of the units for barometric membrane purification of water.</p> <p>Thus, after the analysis of the scientific sources, the decision was made to use the solution of hydroxy-succinic food acid for the elimination of the iron compounds from the surface of the membrane blocks. In the laboratory conditions the study of the efficiency of hydroxy-succinic acids solutions (malic acid formula, C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>6</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) and methane carboxylic (acetic acid, formula C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>O<sub>2</sub> ) acids impact on the extraction of Fe<sup>3+</sup> ions was performed. A number of experiments were carried out, observation and assessment of optical density measurements of the standard and working solutions was performed at photo-colorimeter, clarification, filtration, preparation of the work solutions with malic and acetic acids. Identical experiment was performed, using citric acid but it did not give the desired results.</p> <p>Results of the studies were summarized in the Table 2 and conclusions were made that the solution of dibasic 6% acid C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>6</sub>O<sub>5</sub> is more efficient for fighting the precipitation of the compounds of the ferric iron on the membrane blocks of baromembrane water treatment units. This method is suitable for application in real conditions as the food solution of the malic acid is ecologically safe, financially accessible and in case of corresponding dilution can be discharged into the common drain, it also gives better results at short-term maceration.</p> 2022-01-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022